From values to utilities

For most research questions the results produced by our ePROMs and tools are very useful. In some cases (economic evaluation) an anchored scale in which dead=0.00 is required. We have proven methods available for normalizing and transforming values into utilities

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Economic evaluation

Regulatory authorities and governmental organizations generally require studies to evaluate the value of health interventions. Many of these bodies recommend using a summary measure of health outcome, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as the unit of health benefit in economic evaluations. For QALYs we need that 'dead' has a metric value of zero.

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Preference-based methods stemming from economics, such as the standard gamble and time trade-off, are  constructed such that they directly produce values on a scale, where 0.0 is equal to dead and 1.0 is full health, and these values can be applied in QALY computations, where they are called utilities.


Our preference-based methods require extensions or additional exercises to normalize values because dead does not appear on the scale.

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Values collected with our ePROMs are normalized. By normalizing we mean that the values are transformed or rescaled to produce a common utility scale (0–1). For this purpose, a separate survey performed by a sample of the general population will be performed and the collected data analyzed by a rank-ordered
logit model.

Formula Normalization